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The active ingredient Metoprolol is one of the most important drugs for high blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. As a representative of the group of beta blockers, he is considered well tolerated, but can in case of overdose of Metoprolol side effects such as severe hypotension and low heart rate may occur. Children under six and pregnant and nursing mothers should not take medicines containing the active substance Metoprolol not possible or only after consultation with the doctor. Here you can read everything about the effect of Metoprolol, Dosage and administration.
How Metoprolol works
In stressful situations the body releases the hormone adrenaline into the blood. This stress hormone passes very quickly through the bloodstream to all organs of the body and transmits the stress signal by binding the institutions to certain receptors (beta-adrenergic receptors). The institutions concerned shall adapt their activity thereafter to the stress situation – the bronchi dilate, to absorb more oxygen, the muscles are supplied with blood strengthened digestive activity shuts down, and the heart beats faster to supply the entire body with more oxygen and energy .
Sometimes the system goes off the rails, in which case, for example, the heart – without getting the signal for it – too fast beats. This is weighing on duration the body strong and can lead to serious consequences such as cardiac arrhythmias, blood clots or blood vessel damage.
The active ingredient Metoprolol blocks very selective adrenaline receptors on the heart, so that the stress hormone not dock there and can develop its effect – the heartbeat remains at normal levels
The by mouth (orally) occupied Metoprolol is almost completely absorbed in the gut, but then reduced to about two-thirds through the liver before it reaches its target. Since the drug is excreted relatively quickly through the kidneys (reduction by about half by three and a half hours), sustained-release tablets or capsules are often used, which delays the release Metoprolol. So the drug levels remain in the body throughout the day about the same, and the drug should be taken only once a day.
When is Metoprolol used?
The active ingredient Metoprolol is approved to treat, cardiac arrhythmias, and coronary heart disease, also for the treatment of heart attack patients.
Rather atypical seems the use of Metoprolol for the prevention of migraine attacks. By regulating the blood pressure of the active ingredient may reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.
Outside of its authorization (“off-label”) is Metoprolol – once occupied – also against stress-induced body overreact (as stage fright) is applied. In the approved applications of the drug is usually taken against it in the long term.
How Metoprolol is applied
The active ingredient Metoprolol is in the form of its salt with succinic acid (as succinate, “Metoprolol succ.”), inserted with tartaric acid (tartrate), or with fumaric acid (as fumarate).
Most common form of administration are tablets with prolonged release (sustained-release tablets). Furthermore, there are still normal tablets and solutions for injection. Also available are combination preparations, in addition to Metoprolol, a diuretic (diuretic) or a calcium channel blocker included. Patients with high blood pressure need to take all these drugs often reduced, so their combination facilitates the medication in a single tablet.
Sustained-Release Tablets usually have to be taken only once daily, immediate release tablets several times a day. The physician must first determine an optimum for the patient Metoprolol dosage.
If you want to settle Metoprolol, this should be done slowly and gradually reduce the dose. Otherwise there may be a so-called “rebound phenomenon”, said blood pressure rockets reflexively after discontinuation of the drug into the air.
What are the side effects of Metoprolol?
As a frequent Metoprolol side effects (between one in ten and one hundred patients) occur fatigue, dizziness (especially when getting up), slow heart rate, nausea and vomiting on. During exercise can also cause shortness of breath.
What should be considered when taking Metoprolol?
The active ingredient Metoprolol is metabolized in the liver via a metabolic pathway frequently used, many other drugs are metabolised by the. As a result, Metoprolol with a variety of other drugs / drug classes interact:
- remedy for depression (antidepressants such as Fluoxetine, Paroxetine and Bupropion)
- remedy for mental illness (antipsychotics such as thioridazine)
- means to control heart rhythm (antiarrhythmics such as quinidine and Propafenone)
- remedy for viral infections (Antiviral agents such as ritonavir)
- allergy medication (antihistamines such as Diphenhydramine)
- for malaria (such as hydroxyChloroquine or quinine)
- medicines for fungal infections (such as Terbinafine)
- remedy for stomach ulcers (such as cimetidine)
As can also interact with other drugs Metoprolol, the doctor will ask before prescribing what other medications a patient still applies.
During pregnancy, Metoprolol can be when absolutely necessary, applied. With prolonged use, the growth of the unborn child must be monitored because Metoprolol may cause hypoperfusion of the placenta and thus a deficiency of the child.
The active ingredient can, if necessary, be used during lactation. Because it is excreted in human milk, attention should be paid to possible side effects in the breast-fed infants – in individual cases slowed heartbeat (bradycardia) were observed
How to obtain drugs with Metoprolol
Metoprolol is only available on prescription and thus only available with a prescription in each dosage.
Since when Metoprolol is known?
Metoprolol was first placed in the form of its tartrate salt in 1978 in the US as a medicinal product. In the course of extended claims the drug as succinate of Astra Pharmaceuticals (now AstraZeneca) was developed and approved in the US 1992nd Meanwhile, many low-cost generics with Metoprolol on the market.