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The active ingredient Carvedilol is for the treatment of hypertension, of angina (heart Enge) and used in heart failure. It acts both as beta blockers dampening effect on the heart as well as alpha-blockers; widening the vessels, causing vascular resistance decreases – by both effects the heart work more economically. Here you can read all you need to know to Carvedilol, side effects and use.
How Carvedilol works
When the human body is under stress and must deliver high performance, are released into the blood by the adrenal stress hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. They bind to specific docking sites (receptors) of the target organs and make them available so that a to high performance. So suggests the secretion of these hormones, the heart beat faster and blood pressure rises by a narrowing of the vessels. The bronchioles (fine airway branches in the lung) dilate to accommodate more oxygen can; the fat loss for energy supply is stimulated and the digestion is minimized in order for this not to waste energy.
If this system gets out of the imbalance can lead to a constant, the rapid heartbeat and high blood pressure. Short term: this is not a big deal, but time is harmful for the cardiovascular system and other organs. This reduces the power of the heart, making it have to work even more. This vicious circle must be broken with drugs generally.
Beta blockers such as Carvedilol occupy the beta receptors of the heart, so that the stress hormones not dock and can lead to a rapid heartbeat. Thus, the heart can beat again at normal speed, which then also decreases the blood pressure as a result.
A unique feature of Carvedilol is that it additionally acts as alpha blockers. It also inhibits the occurring in the vessels alpha receptors, where else adrenaline would provide a constriction to cause a rise in blood pressure. The vessels so relax, and the heart has to pump against a lower resistance, which it protects additionally.
engulfing and digesting Carvedilol
The active ingredient Carvedilol is absorbed after ingestion by mouth quickly in the intestine. After about an hour, the highest levels are reached in the blood. The drug is mainly metabolized in the liver to inactive degradation products, which are then excreted in the bile in the faeces. After about six to ten hours half of the recorded amount of Carvedilol is excreted in this way.
When is Carvedilol used?
Carvedilol is used for diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as:
- stable, chronic heart failure
- essential (high blood pressure with no identifiable cause)
- chronic heart Enge ()
Because therapy with Carvedilol only the symptoms but does not combat the causes of diseases, the application must be made in the long term.
How Carvedilol is used
The active ingredient Carvedilol is applied in the form of tablets. These are available in different dosages available, since the therapy should be carried out “einschleichend” – so it will be started with a very low dose that is then slowly increased until the desired effect has occurred. The maximum daily dose is 50 to 100 milligrams of Carvedilol, depending on the underlying disease and the patient’s weight. To be taken with morning and evening meals. If the treatment is stopped it should be “tapered off”, ie with gradual reduction of the dose occur.
Depending on the nature and severity of the disease taking other drugs, in addition to Carvedilol be useful such as ACE inhibitors, diuretics and cardiac glycosides.
What are the side effects of Carvedilol?
In the therapy with Carvedilol occurs in more than one in ten patients treated for side effects such as, heart failure, low blood pressure and fatigue.
In addition, in every tenth following up hundredth treated Carvedilol side effects: infection and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, urinary tract infections, anemia, weight gain, too high or low blood sugar levels in diabetics, high cholesterol levels, depression, dry and irritated eyes, blurred vision , slow heartbeat, fluid retention, dizziness on standing up, cold hands and feet, shortness of breath, asthmatic symptoms, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, pain in the limbs, renal dysfunction and erectile dysfunction.
What should be considered when taking Carvedilol?
If during treatment with Carvedilol still taken other drugs, for a significant interaction between these. The beta-blocker Carvedilol in the body is caused by certain proteins transported (P-glycoprotein) and in the liver by certain enzyme systems (CYP2D6 and CYP2C9) mined that metabolize drugs also. Therefore may arise when taking additional ingredients too high or too low drug levels of Carvedilol.
In the simultaneous intake of heart means Digoxin at its blood levels increases. It should therefore be carried out especially at the beginning of therapy, regular blood level checks.
In the treatment with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin, which is mainly used after organ transplants, there is higher ciclosporin blood levels, so the dose should be reduced.
agents such as cimetidine (for acid related stomach problems) and hydralazine (as in heart failure) as well as alcohol can delay the degradation of Carvedilol in the liver. Meanwhile, blood levels may thereby increase.
The effect of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents may be enhanced by the beta-blocker Carvedilol. Likewise, it can lead to concealment of a hypo, so diabetics should pay particular attention to their blood sugar levels.
The concomitant administration of substances having also antihypertensive effect may cause an unexpectedly sharp drop in blood pressure. Such substances are for example the antihypertensive Clonidine, other beta-blockers, barbiturates (sedatives and sleeping pills), tricyclic antidepressants and alcohol.
Caution is advised in asthmatics – especially those inhale for long-term treatment or long-acting for short-term treatment for breathlessness short-acting bronchial widening agents. When you stop taking beta blockers may cause side effects such as Carvedilol acute respiratory distress and asthmatic complaints, since the effect of asthma medication will be canceled.
Beta blockers such as Carvedilol reduce placental perfusion and therefore should not be used in pregnant women. Since the active ingredient Carvedilol is excreted in human milk, nursing mothers should stop breast-feeding in case of urgent need for therapy.
In children under 18 years of drug Carvedilol due to lack of study data should not be used.
How to obtain drugs with Carvedilol
preparations containing the active ingredient Carvedilol may only be purchased after a doctor’s prescription in the pharmacy.
Since when Carvedilol is known?
Carvedilol is a beta-blocker of the third generation. He was purchased from Boehringer Mannheim (now Roche) developed. Later the rights were sold to the drug to GlaxoSmithKline, where Carvedilol and its formulation were elaborated in detail. The mid-1990s, he was admitted into the European countries as a medicinal drug. There are now numerous generics with the active ingredient Carvedilol .