Last Updated on June 3, 2023
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Allopurinol is a medication used to treat gout and other conditions caused by high levels of uric acid in the body. In the UK, it is available with a prescription from a doctor or pharmacist. However, some people may prefer to purchase the medication over the counter for added convenience and privacy.
Unfortunately, allopurinol is not currently available over the counter in the UK. This means that individuals who wish to obtain this medication must first consult with a healthcare professional to obtain a prescription. This is because allopurinol can have potentially serious side effects if not taken correctly, such as skin rashes, liver problems, and bone marrow suppression.
While it may be tempting to try and purchase allopurinol over the counter from unregulated sources, doing so can be extremely dangerous. Counterfeit medications can contain dangerous ingredients or incorrect dosages, potentially causing serious harm to the individual taking them. For this reason, it is always best to obtain allopurinol from a reputable source with a valid prescription from a healthcare professional.
Buy allopurinol from BuyOvertheCounterUK.net and get top quality drug on low international rates. BuyOvertheCounterUK.net gives you the chance to order affordable allopurinol online and also discover more about allopurinol side effects, dosage information and drug interactions. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have concerning this medicine, particularly if it is new to you.
What is Allopurinol?
Allopurinol is one of the main drugs used to treat high levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia) and its sequelae, such as chronic gout. It is generally well tolerated, but depending on the dose of allopurinol, it may interact with other medicines. Here you can read all about how allopurinol works, its side effects and how to use it.
A drug that interferes with the synthesis of uric acid. It is a structural analogue of hypoxanthine. It inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which is involved in the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. This means that it cannot be used to protect against infections and prevent their formation in the tissues and kidneys. Taking allopurinol increases the excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine in the urine.
Almost majority (90%) of an oral medication is absorbed from the gastrointestinal system. Alloxanthin is produced during the metabolic process, and for a long enough time, it can continue to block xanthine oxidase. Alloxanthin takes 4.5 hours to reach its Cmax in blood plasma after a single dosage, while allopurinol takes an average of 1.5 hours.
Allopurinol’s T1/2 is 1-2 hours whereas alloxanthin’s is closer to 15 hours. The colon absorbs around 20% of the dosage, while the kidneys take up the remaining 80%.
Treatment and prevention of gout and hyperuricemia of various aetiologies (including in combination with nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, uricosuric nephropathy). Recurrent mixed oxalate-calcium kidney stones in the presence of hyperuricosuria. Increased urate formation following enzymatic disorders. Prophylaxis of acute nephropathy in cytostatic and radiotherapy of tumours and leukaemia, and in total medical starvation.
Individualised, controlled by the concentration of urate and uric acid in blood and urine. Adults with oral administration – 100-900 mg/day, depending on the severity of the disease. The frequency of taking 2-4 times/day after meals. Children under 15 years of age – 10-20 mg/kg per day or 100-400 mg/day.
Maximum doses: for violations of kidney function (including those caused by urate nephropathy) – 100 mg / day. It is possible to increase the dose in cases when, against the background of therapy, an increased concentration of urate in the blood and urine remains.
Cardiovascular system: in isolated cases – arterial hypertension, bradycardia.
Digestive system: dyspeptic phenomena (including nausea, vomiting), diarrhoea, transient increase in the activity of transaminases in blood serum; rarely – hepatitis; in isolated cases – stomatitis, liver injuries (transient increase in the activity of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase), steatorrhoea.
From the side of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: in isolated cases – weakness, fatigue, headache, dizziness, ataxia, drowsiness, depression, coma, paresis, paresthesia, convulsions, neuropathies, visual impairment, cataracts, changes in the papillae of the optic nerve, sensation.
On the part of the haematopoietic system: in some cases – thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia, leukopenia (most likely in patients with impaired renal function).
From the urinary system: rarely – interstitial nephritis; in isolated cases – oedema, uremia, haematuria.
Endocrine: rarely – infertility, impotence, gynecomastia, diabetes mellitus.
Metabolic: in isolated cases – hyperlipidaemia.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, hyperemia, itching; in some cases – angioimmunoblastnaya lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, fever, eosinophilia, fever, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Lyell’s syndrome.
Dermatological reactions: in isolated cases – furunculosis, alopecia, hair discoloration.
How does allopurinol work?
The structure of the drug allopurinol is very similar to that of hypoxanthine, a breakdown product of nucleic acid metabolism (nucleic acids are the building blocks of genetic material). This hypoxanthine is converted by an enzyme called xanthine oxidase into uric acid, which is excreted in the urine by the kidneys.
If too much uric acid accumulates in the body due to disease or malnutrition (high meat diet), it crystallises. The crystals are deposited mainly in the joints, where they cause inflammation, stiffness and pain – doctors call this gout. Uric acid crystals can also be deposited in the kidney (kidney gout). Kidney stones can ‘grow’ there and increasingly affect the function of the kidneys – the path to kidney failure.
Allopurinol blocks the enzyme xanthine oxidase and therefore the breakdown of hypoxanthine to uric acid. However, the precursors of uric acid can also be excreted by the kidneys: they do not tend to form crystals.
In the body, allopurinol is almost completely converted to oxypurinol within two hours of ingestion, but both forms inhibit the relevant enzyme. Oxypurinol is excreted very slowly by the kidneys in the urine over a period of 18 to 43 hours.
What is allopurinol used for?
Allopurinol is used in adults as a first-line treatment for hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood), which is usually caused by secondary conditions such as gout, kidney stones and other kidney problems. However, before starting treatment, you should always try to control high purine or uric acid levels through diet, such as a meat-free diet.
Treatment with allopurinol is usually long-term, unless the uric acid levels are normalised by a change in diet. However, allopurinol is only suitable for preventing acute gout attacks (sudden, severe, inflammatory attacks), not for treating an attack – taking it during an attack can increase the acute pain.
How to take Allopurinol?
Allopurinol is given in tablet form. Your doctor will decide on an individual dose of allopurinol based on the level of uric acid in your blood. This is usually done by starting with 100 milligrams of allopurinol once a day and gradually increasing the dose as needed. The maximum daily dose of allopurinol is eight hundred milligrams, divided into several doses (morning, noon, evening).
Because allopurinol inhibits the formation of uric acid, it is called an uricosuric agent. In severe cases, an uricosuric may also be given a drug that increases the excretion of uric acid (e.g. probenecid or benzbromarone). There are also tablets that contain both drugs (allopurinol and uricosuric).
What are the special instructions for taking allopurinol?
Special dosage recommendations apply to patients with existing liver or kidney disease.
Allopurinol should be used very cautiously in patients with heart failure (congestive heart failure) as it may reduce kidney function. If the kidney is already affected by increased uric acid levels (so-called “gouty kidney” kidney stones), it is important to ensure that at least two litres of urine are produced each day. This can be achieved by drinking plenty of fluids.
Allopurinol may interact with various medications. Examples:
- In combination with antibiotics such as ampicillin and can increasingly rashes occur.
- Anticoagulants of the coumarin type can increase the effect, so close monitoring of blood coagulation should be carried out initially.
- Asthma medications such as theophylline are inhibited in their degradation and may need to be dosed less to avoid poisonous (toxic) effects.
- If you are taking cytostatics (anti-cancer drugs) at the same time, you may develop blood disorders. This should be monitored closely.
- Allopurinol can inhibit the breakdown of drugs such as phenytoin, chlorpropamide (for diabetes) and cyclosporine (for autoimmune diseases and after transplants). Your doctor may need to reduce the dose of these drugs.
Allopurinol should not be used during pregnancy or when breast-feeding as there is insufficient data to support this. In addition, the drug has been shown in animal studies to be toxic for reproduction.
How to buy medication with allopurinol?
All medicines containing the active ingredient allopurinol require a prescription because of the many interactions with other medicines and can only be used through a pharmacy. But you can buy allopurinol tablets online from UK.
How long has allopurinol been on the market?
Allopurinol was first approved in the USA in 1966, and after the patent expired, many generic versions of the original drug entered the market.
In 1977, allopurinol was added to the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) list of essential medicines. This list includes all active ingredients that are needed to meet the most urgent health needs of the population.