Last Updated on February 8, 2024
Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication used to treat conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability in people with autism. It works by balancing certain chemicals in the brain that affect mood, thinking, and behavior. In the UK, risperidone is not available over the counter and can only be prescribed by a licensed healthcare professional. This is because it is a potent medication that can cause serious side effects if not used correctly.
Risperidone 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg is offered by most online pharmacies. If you like to get Risperdal online, first read tips on purchasing drugs online.
If you have been prescribed risperidone by your doctor, you can obtain it from a licensed pharmacy. You will need to present your prescription to the pharmacist, who will then dispense the medication to you. It is important to follow your doctor’s instructions when taking risperidone, as taking too much or too little can cause problems. It may take several weeks for the medication to start working, so be patient and keep taking it as directed by your doctor.
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What is risperidone?
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic and is mainly used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unlike first-generation antipsychotics, risperidone has fewer side effects and is therefore often used as a first-line treatment. Here you will find all you need to know about risperidone, including its side effects and adverse reactions.
How does risperidone works?
Psychotic symptoms such as delusions and associated in the brain. Antipsychotics block the binding of dopamine to nerve cells and thus its action.
The first generation of these drugs (such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol) had very typical side effects. These extrapyramidal motor disturbances (EPMS) can already be seen at normal therapeutic doses as so-called parkinsonism – side effects that are reminiscent of the symptom of Eder’s Parkinson’s disease. In Parkinson’s disease, dopamine neurons die, leading to dopamine depletion in the midbrain. This causes the typical symptoms of muscle rigidity (rigor), muscle tremors () and slowness of movement (bradykinesia) to immobility (akinesia). These serious side effects occur when the atypical antipsychotics are used in therapeutic doses or only at greatly reduced doses to risperidone.
As a highly potent antipsychotic the antipsychotic potency (ie efficacy) of risperidone is approximately fifty times higher than that of the first antipsychotic chlorpromazine.
Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of risperidone
Risperidone is completely absorbed from the intestine into the bloodstream after ingestion and reaches its maximum concentration in one to two hours. In the body it is metabolized in the liver to hydroxy risperidone, which is equally effective. About half of the active ingredient and its antipsychotic metabolites are excreted within 24 hours, mainly through the urine.
When is Risperidone used?
Risperidone is used to treat schizophrenia and moderate to severe manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder.
On the other hand, Risperidone is given to patients with dementia / Alzheimer’s disease for persistent aggression, as a short-term treatment (up to six weeks) … Long-term treatment is considered critical, as large studies have shown that it can lead to increased mortality.
Risperidone can also be used as a short-term treatment (up to six weeks) in children (five years old) and adolescents to treat aggression in conduct disorder. The children must have been diagnosed with mental retardation or below-average intelligence. Psychosocial and educational measures are also recommended.
How risperidone is taken?
Risperidone is usually taken as one tablet twice a day. It is not affected by food. Treatment is started at a low dose and then slowly increased until the desired effect of risperidone is achieved.
Other forms of risperidone are also available. For people with swallowing problems, there are injections and orodispersible tablets, and for patients with a stomach tube, there are solutions to be taken by mouth. Aggressive patients sometimes resist medication. For them, a risperidone depot syringe has been developed – the product only needs to be injected once every two weeks and then the patient is free of the constant drug for two weeks, making treatment much easier.
What are the side effects of risperidone?
Very common (affecting more than one in ten patients) occur as Risperidone side effects Parkinson’s symptoms, somnolence, insomnia, and on.
More common side effects with every tenth to hundredth patients are respiratory, ear and urinary tract infections, an increase in the hormone prolactin in the blood, weight gain, insomnia, depression, dizziness, conjunctivitis, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, cough, abdominal pain and indigestion, rash, muscle spasms and pain and urinary incontinence.
What should I watch for while taking risperidone?
Risperidone, like many other drugs, is metabolised in the liver. It has little effect on the metabolism of other drugs. However, risperidone should not be combined with drugs that affect the conduction of impulses in the heart (i.e. cause a so-called prolongation of the QT interval). These include:
- means to control heart rhythm (antiarrhythmics) such as quinidine, procainamide, amiodarone and sotalol
- antidepressants such as amitriptyline and maprotiline
- other antipsychotics
If you are taking other medicines, your doctor or pharmacist should check the interactions on an individual basis.
Some drugs inhibit or stimulate certain liver enzymes that control the breakdown of risperidone. This may increase or decrease blood levels of risperidone, which may affect its effectiveness. Examples of such drugs are carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbital (for epilepsy), fluoxetine and paroxetine (for depression), rifampicin (antibiotic) and verapamil (for irregular heartbeat, etc).
Risperidone should not be used during pregnancy unless the doctor considers it essential. The benefits and risks of treatment must be carefully weighed before use during lactation.
How can I get risperidone?
Risperidone can only be bought on prescription in any dose and only from pharmacies.
How long has risperidone been on the market?
One of the first atypical antipsychotics, risperidone, was developed by the pharmaceutical company Janssen-Cilag between 1988 and 1992 and approved in the US in 1994 for the treatment of schizophrenia. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initially authorised the use of the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone in the USA in 1993.
On June 1st, 1993, Janssen Pharmaceuticals will introduce Risperdal (risperidone), their antipsychotic schizophrenia medication, in the UK.
Along with clearance in other European nations, the product has now received permission in Canada and Mexico.
The patent expired in 2003-04, after which a number of generic versions of risperidone entered the market.