Last Updated on January 15, 2019
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The drug Metronidazole is one of the main antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections with anaerobic bacteria (ie with germs that grow better in the absence of oxygen). He belongs to the drug class of nitroimidazoles and was developed in the year 1960th Meanwhile, it is contained in many medicines. Here you can read everything about the effect of Metronidazole side effects and use.
How Metronidazole works
Metronidazole accumulates after shooting in anaerobic bacteria and some other single-celled parasitic pathogens to (protozoa). Only special enzymes within the bacteria convert the antibiotic in the compounds actually active around that damage the genetic material of pathogens – the germs die off
Since this main mechanism only works inside of anaerobic bacteria, Metronidazole acts hardly on oxygen-loving bacteria or human or animal cells.
Up, degradation and excretion of Metronidazole
The antibiotic is (ie almost 100 percent) was added after oral administration almost completely from the intestine into the body. It takes about eight hours until the half of the drug was degraded and excreted (mainly via the kidneys).
If Metronidazole applied in the form of suppositories (rectal) reach about eighty percent of the active ingredient into the blood; for vaginal application is only about twenty percent.
When is Metronidazole used?
The antibiotic is in bacterial infections with anaerobic bacteria used (especially in the vaginal, gastrointestinal, ear, nose and throat and mouth area) or to their prevention in operations. In addition, Metronidazole is used for infections caused by pathogenic protozoa (protozoa) as trichomoniasis (Trichomoniasis), amoebas (amoebiasis) or Giardia (giardiasis / giardiasis). Depending on the application, the antibiotic is administered for several days. This application period prescribed by the doctor, in order to avoid relapses, are strictly adhered to.
Metronidazole cream is applied externally for skin diseases such as (“copper rose”) and inflammation around the mouth area (perioral dermatitis) because the antibiotic also has anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, such skin diseases are partly linked to certain types of bacteria, which can kill the antibiotic. This sometimes takes a longer-term application into consideration.
How Metronidazole is applied
The most widely used dosage form of Metronidazole at inner infections are tablets or capsules. There are also specially designed for vaginal infections vaginal suppositories.
In severe infections, the antibiotic is administered in the hospital as an infusion (intravenously).
For the treatment of skin diseases are Metronidazole cream and gel are available.
In the application of the antibiotic, patients must strictly adhere to the doctor’s orders, in terms of dosage and duration. Otherwise, it may lead to relapses, or the bacteria are insensitive (resistant) to the antibiotic, which makes this ineffective.
What are the side effects of Metronidazole?
Under the therapy with Metronidazole is very frequently (in more than one in ten patients), nausea and abdominal pain (such as stomach upset).
Often (ie one out of ten to one hundred patients) occur as Metronidazole side effects metallic taste in mouth, vomiting, and dark urine on (by degradation products of the active substance).
What should be considered when applying Metronidazole?
During therapy with Metronidazole should avoid alcohol. Even small amounts of alcohol can otherwise cause flushing, nausea, vomiting and.
With simultaneous use of Metronidazole and various other drugs interactions are to be expected: For the antibiotic, for example, increase the effect of oral anticoagulants (warfarin, phenprocoumon). Conversely, can reduce the effect of Metronidazole-epilepsy medication with the drug Phenytoin. Other interactions can with concomitant use of, for example lithium occur (for bipolar disorder, etc.), barbiturates (sleeping pills and tranquilizers) and cimetidine (to treat heartburn, gastrointestinal ulcer etc.).
So far there is no reliable evidence that Metronidazole has harmful effects on children in the womb. Nevertheless, it should be a precaution not used in pregnancy as possible, unless it is absolutely necessary. Also during lactation an application of the antibiotic should be very carefully considered.
The antibiotic is also suitable for children under six years, for example in the form of suppositories (tablets and capsules can not be swallowed by young children usually easily).
In case of severe liver damage, blood disorders and diseases of the nervous system Metronidazole should not be used.
How to obtain drugs with Metronidazole
Regardless of the Metronidazole dosage of drug prescription and get just about the pharmacy.
Since when Metronidazole is known?
Metronidazole was first developed in 1959 as an anti-protozoal agents, and on the basis of a natural antibiotic that is produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces(Azomycin). In 1962, then also the antibacterial activity of Metronidazole was accidentally discovered, as the active ingredient a patient both of its protozoal infection as well as its bacterial freed.