Last Updated on May 23, 2023
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What is fexofenadine?
Fexofenadine is used in allergic rhinitis and allergic skin diseases. The allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system to harmless substances such as pollen, pet dander and more. In an attempt to defeat the supposed enemies, large quantities are produced of inflammatory mediators - including the tissue hormone histamine and signal substances from the group of leukotrienes and cytokines. These messengers trigger inflammation and are ultimately responsible for the complaints. Histamine plays a key role: it coupled to at specific binding sites of cells and triggers various reactions: the fine blood vessels are expanded, there will be redness and swelling - pain and inflammation occur. Fexofenadine is an antihistamine H1: It blocks the tissue specific binding sites for histamine, the histamine H1 receptors. Histamine is still released, but no longer finds it sufficient free binding sites in order to exert its effect. Fexofenadine but also reduces the release of histamine and leukotrienes, and so has additional anti-inflammatory properties. Fexofenadine improves typical allergy symptoms such as redness and itching, swollen nasal membranes, sneezing and nasal discharge. The drug does not have the soothing, steaming effect of many other antihistamines -. He does not get into the brain, but acts only in the rest of the body. Due to the anti-inflammatory effects of fexofenadine, it can also be used to treat non-allergic nasal conditions, such as symptoms of chronic rhinitis.
What is the mechanism of action of fexofenadine?
The primary mechanism of action of fexofenadine is to antagonize the action of histamine on its binding to its receptor sites. In the allergic condition, histamine is actively released by mast cells and basophils. The receptor is located in the membrane of tissue mast cells, blood vessels, and nasal mucosa. By binding to these receptors, histamine initiates a signaling cascade that triggers the inflammatory response. When an allergic reaction occurs, a number of effects occur simultaneously: activation of platelets, vasodilation, changes in capillary permeability, and degranulation of neutrophils and basophils in the bloodstream. The changes in blood flow, capillary permeability, and degranulation are thought to be the initial events leading to symptoms. Fexofenadine inhibits mast cell activation and histamine release. Fexofenadine also inhibits other effects of mast cell activation: it inhibits eosinophil accumulation and neutrophil activation. The decreased production of histamine that occurs with the use of fexofenadine can potentially impair the immune response against infections.
Fexofenadine does not significantly alter the metabolism of xenobiotics or the metabolism of cortisol and testosterone.