Last Updated on May 30, 2023
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The drug Clomiphene is used to induce ovulation in women with fertility. As so-called selective estrogen receptor modulator it acts on the natural docking sites for the female hormones in the human body. The Clomiphene-taking is also used in certain cases of absence of menstrual period in question. Here you can read everything of interest to the effect of Clomiphene, side effects and use.
How Clomiphene works
Hormonal regulation of the gonads
The function of the gonads in the female (ovaries) and the male (testes) are controlled by the so-called hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system. The hypothalamus is a part of the midbrain and an important control center in the hormone system. About the neurotransmitter GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) it stimulates the pituitary gland (pituitary), gonadotropins distribute, so the hormones LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone). These travel through the blood to the gonads and ensure their proper functioning: In women, the gonadotropins rain from the egg maturation in the ovaries, ovulation (ovulation) and the formation of the sex hormones estrogen and progestin. In men, the gonadotropins for the formation and maturation of sperm as well as the production of the male sex hormone testosterone worry.
Normally, signals the blood levels of sex hormones hypothalamus whether the hormone production is optimal by the hormones bind to specific docking sites (receptors) of the hypothalamus.
If the levels of sex hormones, however, is too low because the gonads do not produce enough hormones, this positive feedback does not occur. About an increased secretion of hypothalamic GnRH then activates the LH and FSH release from the pituitary gland – the gonads increase production of sex hormones. In the reverse case – for example, when doping where sex hormones are supplied externally to stimulate muscle growth – reduces the pituitary gland in response to the increased levels of the gonadotropin greatly to reduce the body’s production of sex hormones, so that relist normal levels
Clomiphene fixes interference
A fault of this hormonal system in the area of hypothalamus and pituitary in women can lead inter alia to absence of menstruation and lack of ovulation. Then ingredients such as Clomiphene may be administered: Clomiphene blocks the docking sites for sex hormones in hypothalamus and pituitary, without activating them. This lack is the body, although a “normal” level of sex hormones is present, feigned. The hypothalamus responds with increased GnRH release, the pituitary with increased LH and FSH release. So the ovaries receive the instruction to produce more sex hormones to correct the feigned lack. The thus achieved increased estrogen levels lead to ovulation or menstrual onset again.
In men is Clomiphene (“off-label”) used without admission to doping, in order to maintain the body’s production of testosterone with external supply.
Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Clomiphene
The drug Clomiphene is taken after oral administration quickly in the intestine, the highest blood levels face four to seven hours after ingestion. The time until the drug is excreted in half is, with five days long. The active ingredient is partly degraded in the liver, but leaving largely unchanged the body with the chair.
When used Clomiphene?
The drug is used to treat women who are infertile due to a lack of ovulation. First, however, is still to be clarified whether other causes in men or women for infertility are responsible. The therapy is also used in cessation of menstruation in question. In both cases, women may become pregnant so using Clomiphene.
All applications come in men without authorization.
How Clomiphene is used
The treatment with Clomiphene takes the form of cycles to five days. If there was no longer time before the menstruation Clomiphene therapy, the therapy at any time can be started. Has the patient on the other hand regular menstrual bleeding (without ovulation), treatment on or about the fifth day of the cycle around should be initiated.
In the first cycle of treatment is five days each taken one tablet with 50 mg Clomiphene. If the first cycle no ovulation have been triggered, 30 days later, another cycle, but then started with 100 milligrams of Clomiphene. A total of six such treatment cycles can be carried out.
What are the side effects Clomiphene?
The Clomiphene intake caused by more than one in ten patients treated an enlargement of the ovaries, flushing (reddening of the face) and hot flushes. This Clomiphene side effects, however, are limited to the duration of use.
Side effects that arise in every tenth to hundredth wife are,, visual disturbances, abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea, vomiting and a feeling of tightness in the chest.
What should I watch for while taking Clomiphene?
Taking Clomiphene is indicated only in women of childbearing age. That is, for men, children and young people and women during and after menopause, the active ingredient is not provided.
Furthermore, it should not be used by women Clomiphene with existing liver disease or hepatic impairment.
Taking other medicines are not known.
After a successful fertilization experts advise necessarily to discontinuation of Clomiphene. Experience has shown namely that the additional intake of the drug could otherwise adversely affect the child.
How to get Clomiphene
The treatment with Clomiphene should only be done by an experienced doctor. The drug is therefore only available on prescription and purchase only in pharmacies.
Since when Clomiphene is known?
Clomiphene has been known since the 1960s and has since been used medicinally. First, the drug was only in Disorders of menstruation used. Later it was discovered that it increases the pregnancy success rate. Since then Clomiphene is also used in the treatment of lack of ovulation.